*tʰūmós (word) "vapor, breath; soul, spirit"

*tʰūmós is a reconstructed word in the Proto-Hellenic proto-language related to psycholinguistics. It is usually translated as "vapor, breath; soul, spirit." The Proto-Hellenic Proto-Language belongs to the language family known as Indo-European.

The Etymology of *tʰūmós is reasonably certain: it may be derived from Proto-Indo-European *dʰuh₂mós.

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Notice about reconstructed forms

Heads up This page contains 'proto' and '*' records. This means that they are unattested, hypothetical forms derived using the comparative method. These are speculative.

The study of language is aided by means of documented evidence in the form-factor of writing. However, not all languages utilized writing at all points in time. Consequently, scholars rely on the comparative method in order to fill this gap. While useful, this method is not perfect. This is why words that begin with '*' are called reconstructions; they are word forms reconstructed by means of said method.

  • What this means: information with 'proto-' or '*' before it is either speculative, understood as accurate by a minority of scholars, or both
  • Why this is: there is a lack of attested written records or scholars may disagree
  • Why this matters: these data may be inaccurate or subject to rapid change
  • Why this is included: reconstructed languages and terms help scholars study historical linguistics; and they encourage open debate

In short, it is not recommended to rely on these data as facts. Before referencing these data for scholarly works, we recommend checking for newer sources. If referencing said data, we recommend introducing them with indeterminate modifiers such as "some evidence may suggest that ..." or "one interpretation by [scholar name] argues that ...", and so forth.

Main definition source for *tʰūmós

Coming soon.

Descendants of *tʰūmós

Citation

MLA 8

PsychLing Contributors. "*tʰūmós." PsychLing, OMNIKA Foundation, 4 Sep. 2023, psylng.org/mli/indo/proto-hellenic/tʰūmós. Accessed 17 Apr. 2024.

APA 6

PsychLing (2023, September 4). *tʰūmós. Retrieved from https://psylng.org/mli/indo/proto-hellenic/tʰūmós

CMS 16

PsychLing Contributors. "*tʰūmós." Las Vegas, NV: OMNIKA Foundation. Created September 4, 2023. Modified September 6, 2023. Accessed April 17, 2024. https://psylng.org/mli/indo/proto-hellenic/tʰūmós.

Bibliography

GHL

Campbell, Lyle R., and Mauricio J. Mixco, eds. A Glossary of Historical Linguistics. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 2007.

DLP

Crystal, David, ed. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2011.

WM

Internet Archive Contributors. "Wayback Machine." San Francisco, CA: Internet Archive. Created October 24, 2001. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://web.archive.org. [Visit]

OI PIE

Mallory, James P., and Douglas Q. Adams. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Wiktionary

Wales, Jimmy D., et al. "Wiktionary: The Free Dictionary." San Francisco, CA: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Created December 12, 2002. Accessed July 28, 2023. https://wiktionary.org. [Visit]

PsychLing MLI

*dʰuh₂mós is a reconstructed word from the proto-language known as Proto-Indo-European. Scholars believe that it means "smoke."

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PsychLing Glossary

Attested Language is a term in Historical Linguistics that means a language with documented writing.

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PsychLing Glossary

Comparative Linguistics is a field of study that concerns the scientific study of comparing languages.

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PsychLing Glossary

Comparative Method is a term in Comparative Linguistics that means a method of comparing languages and words to determine if they are related.

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PsychLing Glossary

Etymology is a field of study that concerns the study of word origins.

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PsychLing MLI

Indo-European is a language family.

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PsychLing Glossary

Language Family is a term in Historical Linguistics that means a collection of languages derived from a common ancestor.

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PsychLing Glossary

Proto- is a term in Historical Linguistics that means a prefix used to denote hypothetical aspects of ancestral languages.

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PsychLing MLI

Proto-Hellenic is a proto-language that belongs to the Indo-European language family.

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PsychLing Glossary

Proto-Language is a term in Historical Linguistics that means a hypothetical ancestor language of other languages.

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PsychLing Glossary

Reconstruction is a term in Historical Linguistics that means a procedure for determining the ancestral form of a word in an unattested language.

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