Notice about reconstructed forms
The study of language is aided by means of documented evidence in the form-factor of writing. However, not all languages utilized writing at all points in time. Consequently, scholars rely on the comparative method in order to fill this gap. While useful, this method is not perfect. This is why words that begin with '*' are called reconstructions; they are word forms reconstructed by means of said method.
- What this means: information with 'proto-' or '*' before it is either speculative, understood as accurate by a minority of scholars, or both
- Why this is: there is a lack of attested written records or scholars may disagree
- Why this matters: these data may be inaccurate or subject to rapid change
- Why this is included: reconstructed languages and terms help scholars study historical linguistics; and they encourage open debate
In short, it is not recommended to rely on these data as facts. Before referencing these data for scholarly works, we recommend checking for newer sources. If referencing said data, we recommend introducing them with indeterminate modifiers such as "some evidence may suggest that ..." or "one interpretation by [scholar name] argues that ...", and so forth.
Proto-Indo-European proto-languages: A–Z
Reconstructions in Proto-Indo-European: A–Z
- *-mos (suffix) "a word ending that creates action nouns or result nouns from verbs"
- *-os (suffix) "a word ending that creates action nouns or result nouns from verbs"
- *-tis (suffix) "a word ending that creates abstract and action nouns from verb roots"
- *dʰewh₂- (root) "smoke; mist, haze"
- *dʰuh₂mós (word) "smoke"
- *men- (root) "think; consider"
- *ménos (word) "mind; thought"
- *méntis (word) "thought"
Information about Proto-Indo-European
PsychLing Contributors. "Proto-Indo-European." PsychLing, OMNIKA Foundation, 1 Sep. 2023, psylng.org/mli/indo/pie. Accessed 10 Dec. 2023.
PsychLing (2023, September 1). Proto-Indo-European. Retrieved from https://psylng.org/mli/indo/pie
Campbell, Lyle R., and Mauricio J. Mixco, eds. A Glossary of Historical Linguistics. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 2007.
Crystal, David, ed. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2011.
Mallory, James P., and Douglas Q. Adams. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Wales, Jimmy D., et al. "Wiktionary: The Free Dictionary." San Francisco, CA: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Created December 12, 2002. Accessed July 28, 2023. https://wiktionary.org. [Visit]
Wales, Jimmy D., Larry Sanger, et al. "Wikipedia: A Multilingual Free Online Encyclopedia." San Francisco, CA: Wikimedia Foundation. Created January 15, 2001. Accessed August 20, 2023. https://www.wikipedia.org. [Visit]
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