Notice about reconstructed forms
The study of language is aided by means of documented evidence in the form-factor of writing. However, not all languages utilized writing at all points in time. Consequently, scholars rely on the comparative method in order to fill this gap. While useful, this method is not perfect. This is why words that begin with '*' are called reconstructions; they are word forms reconstructed by means of said method.
- What this means: information with 'proto-' or '*' before it is either speculative, understood as accurate by a minority of scholars, or both
- Why this is: there is a lack of attested written records or scholars may disagree
- Why this matters: these data may be inaccurate or subject to rapid change
- Why this is included: reconstructed languages and terms help scholars study historical linguistics; and they encourage open debate
In short, it is not recommended to rely on these data as facts. Before referencing these data for scholarly works, we recommend checking for newer sources. If referencing said data, we recommend introducing them with indeterminate modifiers such as "some evidence may suggest that ..." or "one interpretation by [scholar name] argues that ...", and so forth.
Main definition source for *fūmos
Descendants of *fūmos
PsychLing Contributors. "*fūmos." PsychLing, OMNIKA Foundation, 6 Sep. 2023, psylng.org/mli/indo/proto-italic/fūmos. Accessed 10 Dec. 2023.
PsychLing (2023, September 6). *fūmos. Retrieved from https://psylng.org/mli/indo/proto-italic/fūmos
Campbell, Lyle R., and Mauricio J. Mixco, eds. A Glossary of Historical Linguistics. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 2007.
Crystal, David, ed. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2011.
Internet Archive Contributors. "Wayback Machine." San Francisco, CA: Internet Archive. Created October 24, 2001. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://web.archive.org. [Visit]
Mallory, James P., and Douglas Q. Adams. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Wales, Jimmy D., et al. "Wiktionary: The Free Dictionary." San Francisco, CA: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Created December 12, 2002. Accessed July 28, 2023. https://wiktionary.org. [Visit]
*dʰuh₂mós is a reconstructed word from the proto-language known as Proto-Indo-European. Scholars believe that it means "smoke."Read more
Attested Language is a term in
Comparative Linguistics is a field of study that concerns the scientific study of comparing languages.Read more
Comparative Method is a term in
Etymology is a field of study that concerns the study of word origins.Read more
Indo-European is a language family.Read more
Language Family is a term in
Proto- is a term in
Proto-Italic is a proto-language that belongs to the Indo-European language family.Read more
Proto-Language is a term in
Reconstruction is a term in