Notice about reconstructed forms
The study of language is aided by means of documented evidence in the form-factor of writing. However, not all languages utilized writing at all points in time. Consequently, scholars rely on the comparative method in order to fill this gap. While useful, this method is not perfect. This is why words that begin with '*' are called reconstructions; they are word forms reconstructed by means of said method.
- What this means: information with 'proto-' or '*' before it is either speculative, understood as accurate by a minority of scholars, or both
- Why this is: there is a lack of attested written records or scholars may disagree
- Why this matters: these data may be inaccurate or subject to rapid change
- Why this is included: reconstructed languages and terms help scholars study historical linguistics; and they encourage open debate
In short, it is not recommended to rely on these data as facts. Before referencing these data for scholarly works, we recommend checking for newer sources. If referencing said data, we recommend introducing them with indeterminate modifiers such as "some evidence may suggest that ..." or "one interpretation by [scholar name] argues that ...", and so forth.
Reconstructions in Proto-Semitic: A–Z
- *libb- (word) "heart"
Information about Proto-Semitic
PsychLing Contributors. "Proto-Semitic." PsychLing, OMNIKA Foundation, 1 Sep. 2023, psylng.org/mli/afro/proto-semitic. Accessed 10 Dec. 2023.
PsychLing (2023, September 1). Proto-Semitic. Retrieved from https://psylng.org/mli/afro/proto-semitic
Almansa-Villatoro, María Victoria, and Silvia Štubňová Nigrelli, eds. Ancient Egyptian and Afroasiatic: Rethinking the Origins. University Park, PA: Eisenbrauns, 2023.
Crystal, David, ed. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2011.
Huehnergard, John, and Na'ama Pat El, eds. The Semitic Languages. Routledge Language Family Series. 2nd Edition. New York, NY: Routledge, 2019.
Oppenheim, Adolf L., Erica Reiner, and Robert D. Biggs, eds. The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago: Volume 9, L. Chicago, IL: The Oriental Institute, 1973.
Oppenheim, Adolf L., Erica Reiner, Ignace J. Gelb, and Michael B. Rowton, eds. The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago: Volume 6, Ḫ. Chicago, IL: The Oriental Institute, 1956.
Reiner, Erica, and Robert D. Biggs, eds. The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago: Volume 11, N, Part II. Chicago, IL: The Oriental Institute, 1980.
Takács, Gábor. "Layers of the Oldest Egyptian Lexicon I." Rocznik Orientalistyczny 68, no. 1 (2015): 85–39.
Wales, Jimmy D., et al. "Wiktionary: The Free Dictionary." San Francisco, CA: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Created December 12, 2002. Accessed July 28, 2023. https://wiktionary.org. [Visit]
Wales, Jimmy D., Larry Sanger, et al. "Wikipedia: A Multilingual Free Online Encyclopedia." San Francisco, CA: Wikimedia Foundation. Created January 15, 2001. Accessed August 20, 2023. https://www.wikipedia.org. [Visit]
Afro-Asiatic is a language family.Read more
Attested Language is a term in
Comparative Linguistics is a field of study that concerns the scientific study of comparing languages.Read more
Comparative Method is a term in
Proto- is a term in
Proto-Afro-Asiatic is a proto-language that belongs to the Afro-Asiatic language family.Read more
Proto-Language is a term in
Reconstruction is a term in